Papers, Pursuits and Purrsuasions

writings and ramblings on academic, professional, community, and advocacy stuff

Organizational Gender Analysis of the Advanced Science and Technology Institute (ASTI)

3 Comments

I.    The Philippine Science and Technology Framework

The Department of Science and Technology (DOST) is primarily tasked to develop the Philippine Science and Technology Framework. The National Science and Technology Plan 2002 – 2020 (NSTP 2020) provides the policy framework and outlines the direction of the country’s S&T development. The NSTP 2020 is a result of extensive nationwide consultation with business and industry leaders, S&T experts and other government departments and agencies, and other stakeholders. This indicative plan supports the visions and goals of the Medium Term Philippine Development Plan (MTPDP) 2004 – 2010.

In its vision for Philippine S&T, the NSTP does not explicitly state the role of women in the national S&T development. The lack of a gender perspective in the national S&T framework and its lack of recognition on the critical role that women play in many S&T activities is problematic. Among the priority areas identified in the NSTP, namely: agriculture, forestry and natural resources; health; biotechnology; ICT; environment; natural disaster mitigation; and energy, women’s contribution is enormous. Sophia Huyer (June 2004) in her paper Gender and S&T from an International Perspective, outlined the significant role of women in these areas:

  • Women engage in 60-90% of agricultural production activities in the developing world.
  • Women tend to be responsible for the gathering and use of energy for cooking, as well as for water and sanitation needs in their communities.
  • They are holders of much of the world’s indigenous knowledge about medicinal and agricultural uses and processing of plants and seeds.
  • They are providers of family health care.
  • Women make up 2/3 of non formal sector producers and traders.
  • When women are able to use ICT productively, they can substantially improve their lives and increase their income.

Given these facts, it is critical for S&T initiatives to have a gender dimension, as technological changes impact on the lives of both women and men. There is a need to promote greater awareness of the gender dimension in all aspects of science, technology and development, in order to identify the problems of ignoring the gender dimension and suggest ways for overcoming them.

II.    The Advanced Science and Technology Institute

1.    Mandate and Functions

The Advanced Science and Technology Institute (ASTI) is a research and development institute of the Department of Science and Technology created through Executive Order (E.O.) No. 128. By virtue of this E.O., ASTI is mandated to undertake the following functions: (1) undertake long-term researches to strengthen and modernize science and technology infrastructure; (2) Conduct research and development work in the advanced fields of studies including Microelectronics; and (3) Complement the overall endeavor in the scientific field with intensive activities in the computer and information technologies.

2.    Objectives

ASTI has been operating in pursuit of the following overall objectives: (1) To be the center of excellence in the advanced fields of Information Communications Technology and Microelectronics; (2) To catalyze innovative research activities which are critical and strategic to the country’s development; (3) To generate, apply, acquire and adopt state-of-the-art knowledge in the advanced and emerging technologies; and (4) To anticipate and serve the technological needs of industry in its areas of competence.

3.    Vision

The Advanced Science and Technology Institute shall be among the leading R&D centers in ICT and Electronics within the South-East Asian region.

4.    Mission

We are committed to the development of the Filipino society and the Philippines as a nation.  We shall contribute to the attainment of national development priorities and the growth of Philippine enterprises by providing innovative solutions using ICT and electronics technologies.

5.    Goals and Strategies

ASTI aims to be a leading research institute in ICT and Electronics, hence ASTI will:

  1. Establish a corporate image with a keen sense of social responsibility and high productivity;
  2. Forge and strengthen strategic partnerships and linkages with local and international organizations;
  3. Implement a balance between long term and short term researches in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) and Electronics through its Research and Development (R&D) Program; and
  4. Develop technology applications as well as innovative products and solutions and make it readily accessible to its target users.

To be a learning and highly innovative organization, the Agency will:

  1. Continuously enhance the agency management and performance through its Organizational Development Program with emphasis on Process Development;
  2. Upgrade the agency capability and staff competence through a well comprehensive Human Resource Development Program to  be able to attract, develop and retain high-quality staff; and
  3. To build and leverage ASTI’s intellectual capital by implementing the Knowledge Management Program.

ASTI hopes to be cost-effective and on time in the delivery of solutions to its clients. Toward this end, the Institute will:

  1. Develop and manage its own Knowledge Infrastructure System; and
  2. Provide technology-based products, solutions and services that can address the requirements of industry, academe, and government.

Finally, ASTI aims to be financially sustainable. In pursuit of this goal, ASTI will:

  1. Be proactive in generating financial resources from both local and international funding agencies; and
  2. Commercialize the institute’s research outputs and encourage business generating activities through its Technology Transfer Program.

6.    ASTI Organization

There are six (6) main divisions in ASTI, namely: the Office of the Director (OD); Finance and Accounting Division (FAD); and the technical divisions composed of Research and Development Division (R&D), Solutions and Services Engineering Division (S2E), Special Projects Division (SPD), and Knowledge Management Division (KMD), tasked with the following functions:

OD

  • oversee the overall welfare of the agency, set its strategic direction, and formulate internal policies and ensure  implementation to attain goals and objectives
  • plan and monitor the various research programs/projects and activities of the agency
  • set up performance indicators and evaluation of agency performance based on the formulated indicators
  • through the Human Resource and Development section, oversee the development of the competencies and expansion of the capabilities of the agency
  • establish and sustain partnerships and linkages with DOST and external organizations on R&D and technology transfer activities
  • identify funding sources for the agency’s various programs and projects

FAD

  • provides financial, administrative, and ancillary services in support of the agency operations and the welfare of staff

R&D

  • conduct strategic R&D in ICT and Electronics taking direction from the national S&T Plans as well as ICT and Electronics industry development roadmaps
  • address the medium and long-term technology and competency requirements of the organization and/or its target beneficiaries and stakeholders
  • carry out technical/engineering applied research, conduct training, and generate training materials
S2E
  • handles, supports, and markets various solutions and services
  • the Solutions Engineering Team is responsible for converting the client requirements into technical specifications and developing solutions for the target market of the Engineering Services Team
  • the Engineering Services Team is in-charge of handling clients, conduct of  training, and provision of marketing/sales support and technical assistance

SPD

  • involved in the development and delivery of solutions for E-Governance and Education

KMD

  • leverage ASTI’s available intellectual capital and enable the institute to continuously improve its performance through re-use of its intellectual capital
  • source, mine, synthesize and package knowledge for internal and external use
  • leverage knowledge to improve organizational performance of ASTI
  • proactively share knowledge for development impact
  • leverage KM as an integrating component for selected technology solutions

The ASTI organization is primarily hierarchical. The Director is the overall head of the agency. Each division is headed by a Division Chief. Each division is also made up of different project teams which are led by a project leader or a team leader. This structure is presented in Figure 1.

Figure 1. ASTI Organization

ASTI Organization

7.    Human Resources

Based on the personnel profile provided to the researchers by the HR unit, ASTI has a total staff complement of 94 (as of March 15, 2007), where more than half (55.3%) is male, while the female population makes up 44.7 percent (shown in Table 1). The data provided is not sex-disaggregated, and so the researchers by themselves extracted data by sex to show the distribution of female-male staff by various categories. These are shown in the following tables:

Table 1. ASTI female-male staff distribution by gender

Gender

Number

Percentage

Female

42

44.7

Male

52

55.3

Total Staff

94

  

Table 2. ASTI female-male staff distribution by age range

Age Range

Female

Male

Both

Number

Percentage

Number

Percentage

Number

Percentage

21-26

19

45.2

29

55.8

48

51.1

27-32

8

19.0

13

25.0

21

22.3

33-38

8

19.0

6

11.5

14

14.9

39-44

4

9.5

2

3.8

6

6.4

45-50

2

4.8

1

1.9

3

3.2

51 >

1

2.4

1

1.9

2

2.1

 

 Table 3. ASTI female-male staff distribution by job function

Job function

Female

Male

Both

Number

Percentage

Number

Percentage

Number

Percentage

Technical

26

61.9

47

90.4

73

77.7

Admin

16

38.1

5

9.6

21

22.3

 

 Table 4. ASTI female-male staff distribution by job appointment

Appointment

Female

Male

Both

Number

Percentage

Number

Percentage

Number

Percentage

Regular

18

42.9

25

48.1

43

45.7

Project

24

57.1

27

51.9

51

54.3

 

 Table 5a. ASTI female-male staff distribution by position (Technical)

Position

Female

Male

Both

Number

Percentage

Number

Percentage

Number

Percentage

Chief Science Research Specialist (SRS)

1

3.8

2

4.3

3

4.1

Supervising SRS

0

0.0

2

4.3

2

2.7

Senior SRS

5

19.2

12

25.5

17

23.3

SRS II

5

19.2

17

36.2

22

30.1

SRS I

7

26.9

10

21.3

17

23.3

Science Research Assistant

2

7.7

2

4.3

4

5.5

Science Aide

0

0.0

1

2.1

1

1.4

Pproject Development Officer (PDO) IV

2

7.7

0

0.0

2

2.7

PDO II

1

3.8

0

0.0

1

1.4

PDO I

0

0.0

1

2.1

1

1.4

Project Assistant (PA) II

2

7.7

0

0.0

2

2.7

PA I

1

3.8

0

0.0

1

1.4

 

 Table 5b. ASTI female-male staff distribution by position (Administrative)

Position

Female

Male

Both

Number

Percentage

Number

Percentage

Number

Percentage

Director IV

0

0.0

1

20.0

1

4.8

Chief Administrative Officer

1

6.3

0

0.0

1

4.8

Planning Officer (PO) III

1

6.3

0

0.0

1

4.8

PO II

1

6.3

0

0.0

1

4.8

Administrative Officer (AO) V

2

12.5

2

40.0

4

19.0

Administrative Assistant (AA) V

1

6.3

0

0.0

1

4.8

AA III

2

12.5

1

20.0

3

14.3

Executive Assistant (EA) I

1

6.3

0

0.0

1

4.8

Administrative Aide IV

1

6.3

1

20.0

2

9.5

Administrative Aide III

0

0.0

0

0.0

0

0.0

Science Aide

3

18.8

0

0.0

3

14.3

Accountant III

1

6.3

0

0.0

1

4.8

SRS I

1

6.3

0

0.0

1

4.8

SRA

1

6.3

0

0.0

1

4.8

 

 Table 6. ASTI female-male staff distribution by educational background

Degree

Female

Male

Both

Number

Percentage

Number

Percentage

Number

Percentage

IT-related (CS, CE, ECE, CM)

17

40.5

36

69.2

53

56.4

Communications

2

4.8

0

0.0

2

2.1

Mgt/Business/Accounting/Commerce

9

21.4

6

11.5

15

16.0

Economics

2

4.8

0

0.0

2

2.1

English/Humanities/Arts

4

9.5

0

0.0

4

4.3

Computer Secretarial courses

2

4.8

0

0.0

2

2.1

EE/ME

1

2.4

4

7.7

5

5.3

Tourism

1

2.4

0

0.0

1

1.1

Other engineering (CE, AE, ChemEng, GE)

1

2.4

3

5.8

4

4.3

Other Sciences

1

2.4

0

0.0

1

1.1

Law

2

4.8

0

0.0

2

2.1

High school level

0

0.0

2

3.8

2

2.1

Education

0

0.0

1

1.9

1

1.1

 

 Table 7. ASTI female-male staff distribution by highest educational attainment

Highest educational attainment

Female

Male

Both

Number

Percentage

Number

Percentage

Number

Percentage

PhD

0

0.0

0

0.0

0

0

MS/MA or Law

9

21.4

14

26.9

23

24.5

BS/BA

31

73.8

36

69.2

67

71.3

Non-degree

2

4.8

0

0.0

2

2.1

High school level

0

0.0

2

3.8

2

2.1

8.    ASTI GAD Framework

In compliance with the requirements of the Department of Budget and Management (DBM), National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA), and the National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women (NCRFW), ASTI prepared its 2007 Annual GAD Plan and Budget. This is shown in Table 8.

Table 8. ASTI 2007 Annual GAD Plan and Budget

Department of Science and Technology

ADVANCED SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

P/A/P

(1)

Gender Related Issue Concern

(2)

GAD Objectives

(3)

Identified GAD

Activity

(4)

Target

(5)

GAD Performance Indicator

(6)

2007

Budget (Php)

(7)

1. Raising awareness of ASTI staff and key officials on GAD Awareness of behavior or attitudes that may lead to discrimination of women in the workplace. Identify behavior or attitudes that may be discriminatory to development of women in ASTI Invite a resource person to talk about GAD in the S&T environment or attend a seminar Organize at least one (1) seminar on GAD Attendance/participation of ASTI staff to GAD seminar/orientation

 15,000.00

Participation of ASTI staff in GAD-related activities organized by DOST and the National Center for the Role of Filipino Women (NCRFW) and other concerned organizations Attendance in at least two (2) GAD-related activities Attendance/participation in the activities on GAD organized by DOST or other concerned organizations

3,000.00

Introduce concepts of GAD to students assistants Conduct a seminar or talk for students under the Summer Internship Program of ASTI for 2007 Organize at least a seminar on GAD for the Summer Interns (target no. of participants: at least 20) Attendance/participation of ASTI Summer Interns to GAD seminar/orientation

15,000.00

2. Reinforce awareness of ASTI staff on GAD Awareness of behavior or attitudes that may lead to discrimination of women in the workplace. Continuous education and advocacy on GAD concepts and current GAD polices Procure books and other reference materials (brochures, handbook, new laws and rules and regulations on GAD-related issues) Procure at least two (2) books and gather at least ten(10) reference materials including the new law on women’s rights (i.e. Violence Against Women and Children) Availability of GAD reference materials at the ASTI Library

2,000.00

Total

P 35,000.00

 

III.    Findings and Analysis

1.    Organizational Gender Analysis

a.    V-M-G-S

The absence of gender goals and objectives in ASTI’s V-M-G-S implies that gender is not yet instituted in its policies and programs. In its Strategic Plan for 2006-2010, it is not explicitly stated how gender mainstreaming is integrated in its three (3) priority programs, namely: Research and Development Program; Organizational Development Program; and Technology Transfer Program.

Among the three (3) core programs, the R&D Program focuses on the “hard” component, i.e. development of innovative technologies, products, and solutions. The divisions that are mainly tasked to carry out these activities are the Special Projects Division (formerly Computer Software Division), Systems and Solutions Engineering Division (formerly Computer Engineering Division), and the Research and Development Division.

On the other hand, the Organizational Development Program and the Technology Transfer Program focus on the “soft” component, i.e. human resource development, process development, and knowledge management. The divisions that are in charge of these activities are the Office of the Director (the HR function is embedded in the OD), Knowledge Management Division, and Finance and Accounting Division.

An important point to consider in integrating gender into ASTI’s V-M-G-S is that it entails a careful and appropriate assessment of its readiness and capacity for gender mainstreaming. We have to understand that ASTI is, first and foremost, an R&D institute focusing on information and communications technology (ICT) and microelectronics. It should be carefully thought out which aspects of ASTI’s policies and programs can gender mainstreaming be introduced. It should be considered that gender mainstreaming is a process and should adapt to the readiness and capacity of the institution. If we are to “genderize” ASTI’s V-M-G-S, we should do so without gender becoming “too overpowering” to its mandate as an ICT and microelectronics-based R&D institution, lest it appears to be a gender-based institution.

We also need to define gender awareness and gender responsiveness in the context of ASTI’s goals and objectives. By gender awareness, it means that ASTI is able to identify gender issues in ICT and Microelectronics. By gender responsiveness, in addition to becoming gender aware, the more important thing is that there is a conscious effort or an initiative to address these gender issues through its policies, programs, and projects.

 

b.    Organizational Structure 

                    i.      Human Resources

Although there are more male staff than female staff employed by ASTI (Table 1), there is only a small difference in the ratio of female-male staff. This is a good indication that, although not stated in HR policy, there is no gender discrimination in the hiring policy of ASTI. Evaluation and hiring of staff is based on the staff’s qualification, regardless of gender. From a gender perspective, and on a broader context of S&T, this could be construed that as more females enter the S&T workforce (particularly in the field of ICT), there is a greater need to integrate gender mainstreaming in S&T organizations, especially since S&T has specific gender issues that are unique to the sector. In the country, there is a dearth of sex-disaggregated data/information in the sector, mainly because gender mainstreaming has not been institutionalized in DOST or ASTI policies and programs.

ASTI generally has a young staff composition (Table 2). For both female and male, more than half (51.1%) of staff fall under the 21-26 age range; 45.2% for female and 55.8% for male. Table 3 on the other hand shows that most of the staff has a technical function, 61.9% for female and 90.4% for male. These data shows three (3) trends in ICT: first, the ICT workforce is generally composed of “young bloods” as more students take up IT-related courses in college. Second, with the emerging knowledge society, the demand for ICT specialists has increased over the past few years. Third, the number of females taking up IT-related courses is also increasing. From a gender perspective, this has significant implications. As younger females and males enter the ICT workforce, there is not only a need to address sector-specific gender issues, but also age-specific gender issues. Also, considering that they are the generation who will later on influence the direction of ICT in the country, they should be made aware not only of gender issues within the workplace, but of how the gender perspective can be integrated in ICT initiatives.

Project-based staff for both female and male outnumber the regular staff (Table 4). For purposes of discussion, the contract of project-based staff are co-terminus with the duration of the project or the specific work for which the person was hired. There is no security of tenure because there is no employer-employee relationship. They are not entitled to any benefits (13th month pay, leave credits, overtime pay, GSIS, PAG-IBIG, Philhealth, maternity/paternity leave, magna carta, hazard pay, etc.). This may be one of the major reasons why there is a high turnover of project staff in ASTI. Of course, this is something that should be addressed in the policy level, but from a gender perspective, having no economic or social protection works to the disadvantage of both women and men, single or married.

 Tables 5a and 5b show the female-male staff distribution by position. The data was divided into technical positions and administrative positions. The technical positions that have decision-making functions, albeit differing degrees, include: Chief Science Research Specialist (SRS), Supervising SRS, and Senior SRS. Among female technical staff, out of the 26, 23% or 6 are in positions of Chief SRS and Senior SRS. Currently, no female staff is in the position of Supervising SRS. For male staff, 34.1% or 16 out of 47 are in positions of Chief, Supervising, and Senior SRS. Clearly, more males are in positions with decision-making functions/influence.

For administrative positions, those that have decision-making functions include: Director, Chief Administrative Officer, Planning Officer III, and Administrative Officer V. For female staff with administrative functions, out of the 16, 4 or 25% are in the position of Chief Administrative Officer, Planning Officer III, and Administrative Officer V. For male staff, 3 out of the 5 or 60% are in positions of Director, and Administrative Officer V. The highest level of decision-making power is the Director, the head of the agency, who is male.

In terms of educational background (Table 6), majority for both female and male staff, 40% and 69.2%, respectively, took up IT-related courses[1]. A significant proportion, 21.4% for females and 11.5% for males, also have degrees in Management, Business, Accounting, or Commerce. In terms of highest educational attainment (Table 7), a significant majority for both female and male has BS or BA degrees, 73.8% and 69.2%, respectively. On the other hand, those that have MS/MA or Law degrees (either finished or on-going) comprise 21.4% for females and 26.9% for males. An interesting fact is that all of the female staff with MS/MA or Law degrees are all single at the time that they took or graduated from their MS/MA. In contrast, for the male, 5 out of 14 were married at the time they took/finished their MS/MA degrees.

 

                   ii.      Lines of Authority

In terms of decision-making, the common practice is that decisions are first reached at the level of the project teams, this is then escalated to the Division Chief. The final decision can be resolved at the Division Chief’s level or this may be further escalated to the Director or the Core Group. The Core Group is composed of the Director and all the Division Chiefs. ASTI’s Planning Officer and the Internal Audit Officer[2] are also part of the Core Group. Decisions on critical matters are made in the monthly core meeting. The composition of the Core Group in terms of gender is:

Core Group Members

Male

Female

Director

1

Division Chiefs

3

2

Planning Officer

1

Internal Audit Officer

1

The GAD focal person is tasked to mainstream gender. However, there are a few concerns in the delegation of this responsibility. First is that, the HR Officer was primarily tasked as the GAD focal person. However, when the HR Officer resigned around mid-2006, the task was delegated to the Internal Audit Officer (Administrative Officer V). For both cases, the GAD focal person did not/does not have a background on gender mainstreaming. Second, the responsibility of gender mainstreaming is not part of their “official” terms of reference (TOR), but rather, it is a task given to them in addition to their main TOR.

Gender advocates within the organization is important to spearhead gender mainstreaming initiatives. Technically, it is the GAD focal person who advocates, coordinates, guides, and monitors the development and implementation of ASTI’s GAD plan and GAD-related programs, activities and projects[3]. However, it is also critical for the ASTI management[4] to fully support gender mainstreaming initiatives in order to jumpstart the institutionalization of gender mainstreaming in the Institute. 

Based on the interview conducted with the GAD Focal Person and ASTI’s Planning Officer, the staff are not yet aware on what GAD is. Gender awareness should first be established among the management and staff. Gender sensitivity training (GST) should also be conducted for management.

Working with the current organizational set-up of ASTI, and based on the results of interview and initial assessment of policies, programs, and projects, gender mainstreaming could be done at the policy level, particularly HR Policy; and program and project levels. There should be a mechanism wherein gender issues within the program or project levels are addressed at the levels of planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation phases.

                  iii.      Flow of Information and Communication

In terms of flow of information and communication within the organization, although the line of authority is hierarchical, communication flow is generally flexible, open, and democratic. On the project level, both women and men are consulted on project concerns, and among projects, team decision is practiced. However, policy level communication and decision-making is done only at the level of the Core Group.

                   iv.      Integrating Gender Mainstreaming in the Organization: Commitment and policy

There are two important indicators to show an organization’s commitment to gender mainstreaming: (1) extent to which gender is included in the policies of an organization; and (2) support and commitment of management for GAD initiatives. Any initiatives on policy formulation and decision-making should also have the participation of both women and men.

ASTI complies with the national government policy, particularly Executive Order (EO) No. 273 (Approving and Adopting the Philippine Plan for Gender-Responsive Development, 1995-2025), which mandates all government agencies to institutionalize GAD in government by incorporating GAD concerns contained in the PPGD in the agency’s planning, programming and budgeting processes. EO No. 273 also mandates agencies to incorporate and reflect GAD concerns in their agency performance commitment contracts, annual budget proposal, and work and financial plan.[5] Other national policies on gender include the Framework Plan for Women, which encourages government agencies to promote gender-responsive governance, protect and fulfill women’s human rights, and promote women’s economic development; and the annual General Appropriations Act, where agencies are tasked to formulate and implement a GAD plan by utilizing at least 5% of the agency’s total budget appropriations.

ASTI does not have a gender policy nor is gender integrated in other policies, i.e. HR policies. However, management is open to integrating gender into its plans and subsequently carry out gender mainstreaming in the Institute, but presently, this is not prioritized because they do not see the need for its immediate execution. In terms of its GAD initiatives, ASTI has prepared its Annual GAD Plan and Budget for 2007 (Table 8), however, this has not been implemented yet.

Most of the GAD-related activities identified in the 2007 Annual GAD Plan and Budget focus on raising the awareness of ASTI staff and management on what GAD is. At this stage, where gender mainstreaming has not been institutionalized at ASTI, this is an appropriate level of intervention. The fact that management does not see the need for the immediate mainstreaming of gender in the organization shows a limited understanding of gender and its importance to the organization. However, if ASTI management is serious on its commitment to mainstream gender, then they should initiate a review of their policies, organizational processes, programs, and projects, and evaluate how gender can be integrated in these policies.

In terms of budget, the budget for GAD-related initiatives is included in the 2007 Annual GAD Plan and Budget. The proposed overall budget for GAD is Php 35,000. As per GAA, at least 5% of the agency’s total budget appropriations should be allocated to GAD-related initiatives. However, ASTI did not comply with this in the preparation of the budget. The budget officer did not allocate a fixed budget for GAD, but the budget was prepared based on the GAD-related activities that were identified in the annual GAD plan. The budget for GAD is integrated in the Personnel Development item.

 

c.    Organizational Processes 

                      i.      Organizational Culture

Because of its nature as an R&D institute in ICT and microelectronics, the organizational culture at ASTI is adaptive and innovative, constantly abreast of the latest development and advancement in the fields. Organizational culture, in general, is constructive, where staff are encouraged to interact with others and to work on tasks and projects in ways that assist them in satisfying their need to grow and develop. Teamwork and cooperation among women and men is developed through brainstorming sessions and team building sessions.

In terms of learning culture, both women and men are provided opportunities for training (local and abroad) that would help them improve on their skills and capabilities. Taking up further studies is also highly encouraged and supported. Support may be providing flexibility in the staff’s working hours.

ASTI is also a learning institute, as it provides a training ground for graduating college students every summer through the government’s Presidential Summer Youth Work Program (PSYP).

                     ii.    Conflict Management

To date, there are no reported gender-related conflicts. To qualify the term, gender-related conflicts can include sexual harassment in the workplace, gender-based discrimination, and sexist remarks, among others. There has been no incidence of these at ASTI. Although this is a good indication, it cannot be concluded that the organization is gender-sensitive, nor does it mean that there is an absence of gender issues in the organization.

                   iii.     Work culture & styles

Generally, the work culture in ASTI can be described as “clique-based”, which means that staff within project teams usually interact among themselves, or different project teams within a division. There is limited interaction among different project teams in other divisions. Although this is not a generalization, especially in terms of work-related interactions. In many cases, inter-unit or inter-project collaboration on some research or project undertakings, are carried out.

When it comes to the management of learning, the KM Division is in-charge of establishing and implementing systems that enable the gathering and storing of explicit and tacit knowledge from staff and ensuring that these are used for decision-making, program planning, etc. The KM Division has also initiated a quarterly knowledge-sharing session as a means for staff to share and discuss new ideas, tools, good practices, and lessons learned from projects.

                  iv.       Systems & practices

Although the job functions of women and men are not gender-based but based on qualifications, gender does play a role in certain tasks that are assigned to women and men, i.e, climbing antenna towers during deployment activities are given to men. On the other hand, tasks such as registration, ushering, secretariat, food preparation, planning for souvenirs/tokens during office-organized events are assigned to women.

In terms of policies on hiring, firing, promotions, benefits, training/education opportunities, job appointment (whether regular or project staff) precedes gender issues. Gender issues arise because of this nature of job appointment where project-based staff are not able to enjoy the benefits enjoyed by government employees.

2.    Assessing the Progress of Gender Mainstreaming Efforts of ASTI Using the Gender Mainstreaming Evaluation Framework (GMEF)

Using the GMEF, the progress of ASTI’s gender mainstreaming efforts was assessed. These were given a quantitative value based on the scoring guide. Results of the assessment is given in the score sheet below:

Key Areas Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Score
Policy
Expression/Statement

1

0

0

0

1

Enhancement/Improvement

1

0

0

0

1

Average Score

1

People
Expression of support for Gender Mainstreaming

1

0

0

0

1

Capability building interventions to enhance KRA and GAD

0

0

0

0

0

Benefits for women

1

0

0

0

1

Participation of women

0

1

1

0

2

Average Score

1

Enabling Mechanisms
Structures and systems

1

0

0

0

1

Roles and functions of focal points

1

0

0

0

1

Capability building for focal points

0

0

0

0

0

Gender-responsive database

0

0

0

0

0

Resources allocation of the budget

1

0

0

0

1

Networking efforts

0

0

0

0

0

Average Score

0.5

Programs, Projects and Activities
Information, education and communication campaigns

0

0

0

0

0

Client-directed PPAs

1

0

0

0

1

Application of gender-responsive planning

1

0

0

0

1

PPAs implementing international treaties, PPGD, other laws

0

0

0

0

0

Personnel-directed PPAs

0

0

0

0

0

Average Score

0.4

Overall Average Score

0.725

STAGE

1

       a.    General Findings

Based on the assessment of ASTI’s organization, it is still in the early phase of Stage 1 or Foundation Formation of gender mainstreaming – where activities are focused on raising the staff’s gender awareness and generating support for gender mainstreaming. In terms of key areas for gender mainstreaming, ASTI is characterized by:

       b.    Specific Findings

Entry Points for GM Descriptor Status of ASTI
Policy Expression/Statement
  • Policies that express adherence to GAD are formulated
  • Broad statements of intentions or aspirations that state the organization’s support for GAD are issued

Currently, ASTI office policies do not reflect provisions for gender mainstreaming.In the formulation of ASTI GAD framework, it adheres to the national framework and policies on gender, i.e. EO No. 273; Framework Plan for Women.ASTI’s adherence or support for GAD is seen in its Annual GAD Budget and Plan, which is in compliance with the requirements of NCRFW.

Enhancement/Improvement

  • Policies establishing gender mainstreaming mechanisms (i.e. accountabilities, etc.) are issued
  • Review of existing policies to determine gender responsiveness
  • Review of existing policies governing programs and projects

GAD policies and activities has not been institutionalized.Review of existing policies to determine gender responsiveness has not been undertaken on an in-depth level.PeopleExpression of support for gender mainstreaming

  • Top management express support for gender mainstreaming
  • Identification of people in strategic positions within the organization who can mainstream GAD

Management (represented by the Core, composed of all Division Chiefs) is in support of gender mainstreaming.The identified focal person for GAD has no background on gender mainstreaming. Officially, the focal person for GAD mainstreaming is the HR Officer, but this position is currently unfilled so the task is delegated to the Internal Audit Officer who is under the Office of the Director. Capability building interventions to enhance KRA and GAD

  • Gender mainstreaming sponsors, agents and targets are given orientation on appropriate and relevant course on GAD
  • Consciousness-raising and orientation on GAD among organization’s heads and key officers

Consciousness-raising and orientation on GAD among top management has not been initiated yet. Generally, there is a lack of awareness on GAD not only with management but also with the whole staff.Efforts to integrate GAD in KRA has not been started.

Benefits for women

  • Identify practical and strategic needs of women

No initiative yet to identify practical and strategic needs of women in the organization. Participation of women

  • Taken action prescribed by others
  • Consulted

Women are equally involved in decision-making, planning, and other critical functions.Enabling MechanismsStructures and systems

  • Existing system and structures are diagnosed

This study serves as the initial diagnosis/ assessment of ASTI’s existing system and structures in relation to gender mainstreaming efforts. Roles and functions of focal points

  • Focal points are set up in the central office and regional and provincial offices
  • Liaise with other organizations

Gender focal person has been identified, although gender mainstreaming is not her primary function, but rather, it is an added task. Capability building for focal points

  • Conduct of GST and other orientation seminars for focal points

This has not been undertaken. Gender-responsive database

  • Pertinent sex-disaggregated data on its personnel and clients are compiled and gathered

Sex-disaggregated data is limited to number of female and male personnel; number of female and male technical staff and administrative staff. Other data, i.e. involvement of female and male in decision-making is not readily available. Resources allocation of the budget

  • Special budget allocation based on appropriate GAD Plan is formulated

Budget for Annual GAD Plan is allocated, but does not comply with the 5-30% requirement/ suggestion of NCRFW. Networking efforts

  • Partnership with possible resource institutions and individuals who may assist the organization in mainstreaming is sought
  • Relevant undertakings of partner individuals/institutions are determined

No partnerships regarding GAD initiatives have been undertaken.Not part of a gender network.Programs, Projects and Activities (PPAs), Information, education and communication (IEC) campaigns

  • IEC strategies and materials appropriate for agency heads and key officers are developed and conducted

No IEC campaigns or other advocacy campaigns have been carried out. Client-directed PPAs

  • Opportunities and potentials for mainstreaming GAD are evaluated
  • Activities for mainstreaming GAD in PPAs are identified

This study serves as an initial evaluation of opportunities and potentials for gender mainstreaming in ASTI. PPA implementing international treaties, PPGD and other laws and policies on women and GAD

  • Implementation of PPGD and other laws and instruments are considered

No initiative yet but can be a potential consideration in ASTI’s GAD Planning. Application of gender responsive planning (GRP) and other planning technologies in PPAs

  • GRP application in refining PPAs is considered

No initiative yet but can be a potential consideration in ASTI’s GAD Planning. Personnel-directed PPAs

  • Major personnel-directed PPAs with possible GAD implications are identified

No initiative yet but can be a potential consideration in ASTI’s GAD Planning.

 

IV.    Recommendations

 

1.    V-M-G-S

  • The group attempted to enhance ASTI’s existing V-M-G-S to integrate gender. The group recognizes that ASTI is an R&D institute mandated to undertake research and development in the advanced fields of ICT and Microelectronics, so we were careful in integrating gender in its V-M-G-S so as not to make ASTI a “gender institution”. The box below shows our viewpoint of what ASTI V-M-G-S is if gender is integrated:

Vision

The Advanced Science and Technology Institute shall be among the leading and gender-responsive R&D centers in ICT and Electronics within the South-East Asian region.MissionWe are committed to the development of the Filipino society and the Philippines as a nation.  We shall contribute to the attainment of national development priorities, the growth of Philippine enterprises by providing innovative solutions using ICT and electronics technologies, and the development of enabling technologies that generate opportunities and promote women’s participation in the knowledge society through ICT.

Goals and Strategies

ASTI aims to be a leading and gender-responsive research institute in ICT and Electronics, hence ASTI will:

  1. Establish a corporate image with a keen sense of social responsibility (including gender responsiveness), and high productivity;
  2. Forge and strengthen strategic partnerships and linkages with local and international organizations;
  3. Implement a balance between long term and short term researches in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) and Electronics through its Research and Development (R&D) Program and ensure that participation of women and men are integrated in its research objectives; and
  4. Develop technology applications as well as innovative products and solutions and make it readily accessible to its target users.

To be a learning, gender-responsive, and highly innovative organization, the Agency will:

  1. Continuously enhance the agency management and performance through its Organizational Development Program with emphasis on Process Development and the integration of gender-responsive policies and programs;
  2. Upgrade the agency capability and staff competence through a well comprehensive Human Resource Development Program that promote equal opportunity for women and men); and
  3. To build and leverage ASTI’s intellectual capital by implementing the Knowledge Management Program.

ASTI hopes to be cost-effective and on time in the delivery of solutions to its clients. Toward this end, the Institute will:

  1. Develop and manage its own Knowledge Infrastructure System; and
  2. Provide technology-based products, solutions and services that can address the requirements of industry, academe, and government, taking into consideration that these should also be a tool to promote the empowerment of women.

Finally, ASTI aims to be financially sustainable. In pursuit of this goal, ASTI will:

  1. Be proactive in generating financial resources from both local and international funding agencies; and
  2. Commercialize the institute’s research outputs and encourage business-generating activities through its Technology Transfer Program.

2.    Policies

  • Currently, ASTI does not have a gender policy nor is gender integrated in its other policies. Gender initiative such as the 2007 Annual GAD Plan and Budget was prepared in compliance with NCRFW/NEDA/DBM requirements. A GAD Planning is one of the gender-related activities that the Institute is planning to carry out. This is a critical activity for ASTI in terms of gender mainstreaming initiatives. As an input to ASTI’s GAD Planning, the group recommends that a review of policies, particularly Human Resources (HR) policies be carried out to determine how gender can be integrated in these policies, with the end goal of institutionalizing this in ASTI. For example, as one of the orientation activities for newly hired staff, a gender awareness talk can be conducted, which would introduce basic concepts of GAD, gender-based discrimination in the workplace, sexual harassment, etc.

 

3.    Overall GAD Plan

  • ASTI should target the institutionalization of gender mainstreaming in the organization. Presently, gender is viewed as a separate activity and not something that should pervade all aspects of its organizational structure and processes. GAD-related activities are outlined in the 2007 Annual GAD Plan and Budget, however, its GAD objectives and most of the activities identified in the plan focus on gender awareness. Although this is appropriate considering the need for ASTI management and staff to become gender aware, there should also be corresponding policy changes in order for gender mainstreaming to happen. A detailed GAD Plan should be prepared, specifying strategies for the institutionalization of gender in ASTI’s policies, programs, and projects.
  • A GAD budget should also be equitably allocated in the agency General Appropriations Act (GAA).

 

4.    Programs and Projects

  • ASTI has three (3) core programs, namely: R&D Program; Organizational Development Program; and the Technology Transfer Program. On the program level, gender mainstreaming can be integrated in the Organizational Development Program that includes human resource development, process development, and knowledge management; and Technology Transfer Program.
  • On the project level, it is critical to integrate gender in the project development stages – project planning, design, implementation, and evaluation. ASTI should consider the impact of its ICT projects on social development, if its projects are to contribute not just to the development of the national S&T framework, but to the overall national goals in addressing poverty. 

 

5.    Organizational Structure

  • Working within the current organizational set-up of ASTI, the appropriate person to be the GAD Focal Point is the HR Officer. However, gender competence should be included as one of the qualifications of the HR Officer, and the terms of reference of the HR Officer should be modified to include gender. If the HR Officer is not gender competent, then she/he should be made to attend gender-related seminars/workshops.

 

6.    Organizational Processes

  • Although a relatively small agency in terms of its manpower, ASTI nonetheless has complex and unique organizational processes. Gender inequality is not seen as an issue within the organization, but this does not mean that it does not persist. Organizational processes have a gender subtext – concealed processes subtly and latently producing gender distinctions. A more in-depth study of gender relations and distinctions in ASTI can be undertaken to find out more extensively how the gender subtext come into play in ASTI’s work processes, systems and practices, and culture.

[1] ECE, Computer Science, Computer Engineering, Computer Management

[2]This person is also the ASTI GAD Focal Person

[3] Guidelines for the Preparation of Annual GAD Plan and Budget, p.4

[4] The Core Group

[5] Guidelines for the Preparation of Annual GAD Plan and Budget, p.1

“Organizational Gender Analysis of the Advanced Science and Technology Institute (ASTI) and the Gender Analysis of the Project ‘Commercialization of a Locally Developed Human Breast Milk Pasteurizer'” written by Jeng Tetangco, Cindy Cruz-Cabrera and Queen Olivar | March 2007

Next: Part II – Project Case Study: Gender Analysis of the Project “Commercialization of a Locally Developed Human Breast Milk Pasteurizer”

Advertisements

Author: cindycatz: occasional pianist and coffee shop philosopher

fond of the sun, sky, sea, sand and starfish; passionate about literacy, education, media, feminisms, development, popular culture, counterculture, migration phenomenon, anthropology and the fourth world; fascinated with crochet, sushi-making, fiction, creative non-fiction, storytelling, some films and series | books and comics | anime and manga | music and videos | bands and groupies, Latin and Italian, mom-and-pop consumerism, tavern bards and cafe philosophers, trinkets and bric-a-bracs, and steampunk and lolita couture; and absolutely enamored with nail polish and bag charms, frappucinos and margaritas, conversations and moments, her 41 year-old piano, and - of course - CATS. credentials? visit about.me/cindycruzcabrera & ph.linkedin.com/in/cindycruzcabrera/

3 thoughts on “Organizational Gender Analysis of the Advanced Science and Technology Institute (ASTI)

  1. Pingback: List of Acronyms: Organizational Gender Analysis and Project Case Study | Papers, Pursuits and Purrsuasions

  2. Pingback: Organizational Gender Analysis and Project Case Study: Table of Contents | Papers, Pursuits and Purrsuasions

  3. Pingback: Organizational Gender Analysis and Project Case Study: Abstract and Blog Post List | Papers, Pursuits and Purrsuasions

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s