Papers, Pursuits and Purrsuasions

writings and ramblings on academic, professional, community, and advocacy stuff

Violence and Sanction in the Male-Female Dynamic of the Ilongot, Tausug, and Teduray Societies: Objectives of the Paper


The goals of feminist studies and anthropology are different – anthropology’s quest for the internal logic and beauty of a society vs. women and development studies’ search for the sources of inequality and oppression and possible solutions to address these social ills. Anthropological research and analysis about the other compels one to look inward and contemplate one’s own cultural and societal practices. Feminism, on the other hand, begins with the contemplation of one’s own cultural and social practices – one’s own realities – and then outward to other cultures and societies, searching for common though variant sources of inequality, threads of oppression, bones of contention, congruent or opposing declarations vs. practices.

It is the marriage of these two areas that I will employ as the framework of this paper, where I shall attempt to glean and describe the male-female dynamic of three Philippine social groups through the congruency of or conflict between each one’s conceptual foundations and its gender practices.

This paper shall focus on three indigenous Philippine societies known for their cultures of violence and non-violence, delving into the rationales, contexts, and principles upon which their practices are based. My analysis of the male-female dynamic, as with all feminist analyses, will rest in human rights particularly the right to life, to self-determination, “to realization of human dignity and development of human personality”[1], “to freely enjoy culture and the arts, and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits”.[2]

Though there continue to be debates within anthropology about universalizing women’s subordination and oppression, my view is that a feminist analysis framed by the human rights will not detract from the acknowledgement and appreciation of a particular culture’s validity, beauty, and contributions to humanity – these actually contextualize the male-female dynamic operating within it and allow us to gain insight on a social group’s internal logic, self-evident truths, and contradictions with regard to gender. There is no question about our appreciation and respect for cultures; however, a rights-based perspective situates us on the same side of the table by providing reference points upon which to anchor and view the critique of the male-female dynamic.

Thus, through this analysis, I intend to: (1) specify gender-marked or gender-equal cultural views and practices; (2) label them for what they are, without euphemism; and (3) stripped bare of internalized structures of acceptance, identify and describe the underlying objectives and concepts within which these practices are enshrined.

[1]Amaryllis Torres, “Chapter 7: Equality, Equity, Entitlement, and Human Rights,” Gender and Empowerment (pre-publication document, undated), p5.

[2]Torres, p5.

“VIOLENCE AND SANCTION in the Male-Female Dynamic of the Ilongot, Tausug, and Teduray Societies: A Research Paper” written by Cindy Cruz-Cabrera | March 2008

Next: Violence and the Male-Female Dynamic


Author: cindycatz: occasional pianist and coffee shop philosopher

fond of the sun, sky, sea, sand and starfish; passionate about literacy, education, media, feminisms, development, popular culture, counterculture, migration phenomenon, anthropology and the fourth world; fascinated with crochet, sushi-making, fiction, creative non-fiction, storytelling, some films and series | books and comics | anime and manga | music and videos | bands and groupies, Latin and Italian, mom-and-pop consumerism, tavern bards and cafe philosophers, trinkets and bric-a-bracs, and steampunk and lolita couture; and absolutely enamored with nail polish and bag charms, frappucinos and margaritas, conversations and moments, her 41 year-old piano, and - of course - CATS. credentials? visit &

2 thoughts on “Violence and Sanction in the Male-Female Dynamic of the Ilongot, Tausug, and Teduray Societies: Objectives of the Paper

  1. Pingback: Where Anthropology and Feminist Research Converge and Diverge | Papers, Pursuits and Purrsuasions

  2. Pingback: Violence and Sanction in the Male-Female Dynamic of the Ilongot, Tausug, and Teduray Societies: Abstract and Blog Post List | Papers, Pursuits and Purrsuasions

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