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Investigation of the UP Union Women-Members’ Participation

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FIELDWORK OUTPUT DELIVERABLES: Objective #1

Investigation of the UP Union Women-Members’ Participation

Investigation of the Women-Members’ Participation Through the SURVEY

 

A.            Objectives of Survey

    • To determine the factors that affect members’ involvement (whether active or not active) in the Union;
    • To surface both the members’ awareness on the Gender Committee and their levels of consciousness about gender-specific issues; and
    • To elicit members’ suggestions on how to increase the participation and active involvement of women members in the union’s activities

B.         Survey Questionnaire

The survey questionnaire that was developed consisted of three parts:

Part 1: Personal Profile. The first part aimed to uncover the demography and profile of members. The information gathered are: Name; Age; Gender; Civil Status; Highest Educational Attainment; Office/Unit; Position; Salary Grade; Monthly Income; Other Source/s of Income (if any); and Contact Details

Part 2: Membership Profile and Awareness. The second part aimed to determine the proportion of membership that is active and not active in the Union and the factors that affect their participation, whether positively or negatively. It also aimed to find out if members are aware about the Gender Committee.

Part 3: Members’ Issues and Concerns. The last part aimed to ascertain their awareness and consciousness about gender-related issues and the importance of addressing these issues within the organization and their respective offices. The members were also asked to provide their suggestion/s on how to encourage women members to be more active in the Union.

C.            Results and Analysis

Profile of Survey Respondents

The total number of respondents that accomplished and returned the survey questionnaire was 89. Out of these, 53 (59.6%) are women, and 36 (40.4%) are men.

The breakdown of the respondents according to the office/unit where they belong are as follows:

Office/Unit

Female

Male

Total

Accounting

1

1

CMC

5

1

6

CMO

1

9

10

CS

3

2

5

CSWCD

7

1

8

Ipil RH

1

1

Main Lib

17

3

20

Molave RH

2

2

NEC

2

3

5

NISMED

3

5

8

OASH

1

1

OSSS

1

2

3

OVCCA

1

1

PABX

1

1

Sanggumay RH

1

1

Student Housing

1

1

UFS

2

5

7

UP Press

4

1

5

Not indicated

3

3

TOTAL

53

36

89

Table 2: Breakdown of Respondents by Office/Unit

Age Range: For the female, 23% of the respondents were in the 41-45 age range; the 46-50 and 51-55 age bracket each had 13% of respondents belonging to the group; while the 36-40 and 56-60 age bracket each had 11% of the respondents. The majority of those who indicated that they are active in the Union are in the 36-45 age range (8 out of 15 active). It was observed that the number of years as Union members was not a contributory factor on whether they are active or not.

Age Range

Female

Male

Total

25-30

4

2

6

31-35

3

2

5

36-40

6

2

8

41-45

12

6

18

46-50

7

3

10

51-55

7

7

14

56-60

6

7

13

61-65

4

5

9

No age given

4

2

6

TOTAL

53

36

89

Table 3: Breakdown of Respondents by Age Range

For the male, both the 51-55 and 56-60 age brackets each produced 19% of the respondents; 17% belonged to the 41-45 age range; and 14% were in the 61-65 age bracket. The majority of those who are active in the Union are in the 56-65 age bracket (10 out of 18 active). Again, as with the women, the number of years as Union members was not a contributory factor to whether they are active or not.

Civil Status: A considerable percentage of both female and male respondents are married (75% for female and 78% for male). It can be noted too that the married females and males comprise the majority of active Union members.

Civil Status

Female

Male

Total

Single

10

5

15

Married

40

28

68

Separated

3

2

5

Not indicated

1

1

TOTAL

53

36

89

Table 4; Breakdown of Respondents by Civil Status

Highest Educational AttainmentThe female respondents with an MS/MA degree far outnumber the male respondents, although the majority of both male and female respondents have a BS/BA degree.

The majority of female respondents active in the Union hold mid- to high-level administrative positions, such as: Administrative Officer; Research Officer/Associate; Supply Officer; Student Records Examiner; College Librarian; Information Officer; DEMO (Higher Level); and Clerk (Higher Level).

For the male respondents, most of the active members hold technical and lower-level administrative positions, such as: Lab Technician; Electrician; Driver; Plumber/Foreman; Steward; CODIC; REMO; House Attendant; Administrative Assistant; Storekeeper; and Binding Supervisor, among others.

Highest Educational Attainment

Female

Male

Total

MS/MA

10

1

11

BS/BA

34

14

48

Vocational

4

8

12

High School

3

7

10

Not indicated

1

5

6

TOTAL

53

36

89

Table 5: Breakdown by Educational Attainment

Salary Grade and Monthly Income: Among the respondents, more women are in the higher salary grade and monthly income levels, which is consistent with the findings that more women have MS/MA and BS/BA degrees as compared to the men and, expectedly, hold higher administrative positions.

Salary Grade

Female

Male

TOP

SG 8 – (12)

SG 18 – (7)

SG 15 – (7)

SG 14 – (5)

SG 8 – (5)

SG 3 – (5)

SG 4,10,11,16 – (2)

Table 6: Breakdown of Respondents by Salary Grade

Monthly Income

Female

Male

TOP

10,001-15,000 (23)

15,001-20,000 (16)

5,000-10,000 (11)

20,001-25,000 (2)

5,000-10,000 (14)

10,001-15,000 (11)

15,001-20,000 (4)

Table 7: Breakdown of Respondents by Monthly Income

Other Income Source: A few of the respondents have sources of income other than their salaries (or the salaries of their spouses), which are reflected in Table 8. The categories of these income sources are varied: establishing their own small-scale stores such as a tiangge or a sari-sari store; leasing their property; and providing services that are both directly related unrelated or to their profession (such as school transport services or the catering business).

Female

Male

  • rice fields (for lease)
  • bed space; paupahang bahay
  • sidelines related to profession (writing, editing, proofreading, translation)
  • coconut plantation
  • nagbebenta ng load (smart and globe)
  • catering
  • tiangge
  • school service/car pooling
  • mini sari-sari store
  • plumbing-related work (sideline related to profession)
  • consultancy services
  • landscaping/painting contractor (house)

Table 8: Respondents’ Other Sources of Income

Membership Profile and Awareness

Table 9 shows the proportion of active and inactive Union members. Clearly, the figures indicate that a greater percentage of men are active in the Union; while for the women, about 2/3 are not active. This implies that there is a compelling need to get women members to be more involved, and that programs and activities should be able to address gender issues that affect women’s participation. The Gender Committee should work along these issues.

 

Female

Male

Total

Active

15

18

33

Not Active

38

18

56

TOTAL

53

36

89

Table 9: Proportion of Active and Inactive Union Members

Investigation of the Women-Members’ Participation Through the FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION

I.              Focus Group Discussion (FGD)

The FGD was held on February 26, 2008 at the All UP Academic Union Office. The objectives of the FGD are:

  • To validate and substantiate the suggestions given by members in the survey, which will in turn aid in the development of a concrete program that the Union can undertake to encourage women members to be more active in participating in union activities; and
  • To outline/identify the responsibilities of the Gender Committee, and organize its members.
II.            Discussion QuestionsThe main questions that the FGD aimed to answer were:

  • What can be done so that women members will be encouraged to be more active in participating in union activities?
  • What programs can the Gender Committee launch/organize for women members?
III.           Conduct and Review of the MeetingThe FGD aimed to have a free-flowing and open discussion among participants. The FGD group consisted of both women and men in order to gain a better understanding of issues through the gathering of both the male and female perspectives.The meeting was facilitated by the Agency Supervisor and the field students. Ate Fransing and Ate Connie, who were privy to the questions and part of the planning sessions, participated in the FGD as members of the focus group. It began as a round-table discussion where a question would be posed and everyone would have a turn at answering the question. However, the varied and thought-provoking points made by the group members started a discussion where others would pick up threads and pursue points in different directions. Through facilitation the discussion would go back on track (meaning the original questions set) but the divergent points of discussion were actually very interesting and insightful.The discussion took a turn in format and became a sharing and feedbacking session when members began to relate their experiences, pose hypothetical situations, and inquire about differing perspectives. The exchange proved to be enlightening and insightful, as male and female perspectives and realities came into play. It seemed a model for the hearing of grievances because of the following:

    • There was an atmosphere of healthy respect for each other and an acknowledgement of the validity of each person’s perspectives, realities, and truths;
    • There was a genuine interest and concern about each person who shared and his or her stories;
    • There was an openness for the different readings of the story presented, the possible perspectives of other characters involved, and the possible rationales for certain actions committed by the characters;
    • There was an interest at unearthing, discussing and determining the operating principles, concepts, and dynamics in the given situations in the stories;
    • Links were always made between the discussed operating principles, concepts, and dynamics and women’s realities, issues, concerns, and needs.
    • All throughout each person’s sharing, the atmosphere and attitude of those present was that of non-judgmental, unconditional regard. Opinions framed with the acknowledgement of multiple realities and definitions were put forth for the person sharing to digest and decide upon. The person telling the story was considered the expert, and the advice or opinions of the others were options to look into, and not impositions.

The dynamic and synergy of people in attendance clearly illustrated how they seemed to be worthy and suited to becoming members of the Gender Committee. The invitation was made shortly after the discussion, and after some individual deliberation, all those present agreed (including the field students).

IV.          Results

The FGD generated the following general insights and discussion points:

On Women’s Participation in Union Activities

  • Many women may not be interested in participating or are interested but are constrained from doing so because of the following reasons:
  • Heads of offices/units do not allow them to participate or frown upon their participation
  • Motherhood duties and responsibilities create some resistance, from the female union member herself or her spouse, against attending activities
  • Multiple burden
  • Lack of time to juggle union along with work and family: office hours are ruled by the boss while after-office hours are ruled by the spouse and family
  • “Gipit ang sitwasyon”
  • Bosses are instrumental in their constituents’ attendance or non-attendance of union activities for the following reasons:
  • Some heads of units do not allow their employees outright to attend.
  • Employees are made to feel that they are in violation of their duties and that their participation will negatively affect their bosses’ rating of their performance.
  • Some bosses allow them to attend and then assign them to do so many things that they are not able to leave.
  • The union is not too focused on making the women active and encouraging them to attend the activities.
  • Members feel that the union prioritizes the big issues for discussion, and does not focus on more relevant gender issues.

On Possible Solutions That Will Encourage Women to be More Active

    • Alternating attendance for employees per office/unit, where the person who attends holds a feedbacking session, will enable them to be informed and learn more about the union and its activities.
    • Active members should be tapped to help out in consolidating the Gender Committee and spread the word of its existence.
    • The “relyebo” system, where two people from the office/unit attend together, may help enable some members to become more active in the union.
    • Active union members should go from office to office to invite members and encourage them to attend.
    • Gender Sensitivity Training (GST) workshops should be conducted per office.

On Gender Issues and Needs: Possible Actions and Information Campaigns

  • The Union should hold orientations about the organization and also abut rights of employees, and women in particular.
  • Women and men should be educated on sexual harassment: what it is, what can be done, how to handle it and whom to consult or whose help one can count on.
  • Topics that center around the family, spousal relationships, and dealing with extended family members will also attract and aid many women members who face grim realities within these relationships everyday.
  • Members should also be enlightened on Violence Against Women and Children (VAWC).
  • GST Workshops are both consciousness-raising and attractive to members because there are always many masculine and feminine issues.
  • Members should be trained in becoming sensitive to concerns and recognizing the rights of both the male and female.
  • There should be a venue in the office for talking about personal problems because when a worker is not happy, his or her work is affected.
V.            Analysis

Union Orientation / Reorientation

There is a need for the union to hold an orientation, or perhaps a reorientation, for its members. Familiarizing the members with the union’s constitution and the CNA will make them aware of their right to attend and engage in union activities. The union should also have as its goal for the orientation the members’ enlightenment on the different levels of consciousness and involvement – in essence, the awareness of what the union means by “militante, progresibo, makabayan” – so that members will become accustomed to thinking beyond his or her personal issues, needs and concerns because he or she knows to connect these parts of his or her predicament with the larger issues. The members must come to see how their voices can make a difference in the web of work, community, and national issues and problems that they are enmeshed in.

Orientation of Heads of Units/Offices

There is also a marked need to enlighten or win the bosses over to the causes of the union and illustrate to them the ways in which their constituents’ attendance and involvement in union activities will actually benefit them. Approaches to be taken to solve this must be planned strategically because the picture painted during the FGD of the problematic bosses are grim: bosses who do not allow their employees to attend may well be focused on their power and keeping their power or staying in power. Thus the union may be viewed by problem bosses, especially the abusive ones, as a threat to their power and control. Enlightenment may not be the key; on the contrary, more indirect methods such as “projection” and “marketing” may not be deemed desirable approaches by the union, but nevertheless these and their effects may be studied and used as a guide in devising ways of winning them over.

GSTs and Information Campaigns

The shackles that bind many members, particularly the women, are rooted in gender concepts, issues, problems and needs where the double standard is the rule of thumb and the operating principle that drives social, moral, religious, and even legal codes, standards, opinions and beliefs. Workshops and campaigns that seek to educate to liberate will affect membership activity significantly. Based on the FGD, there seems to be a murmured clamor for the discussion of topics that relate to the male and the female, the masculine and the feminine. Workshops that are marketed to meet immediate needs while actually serving information that will equip members with the gender lens for viewing and analyzing things in the long-term will be most effective if these are group dynamic- and activity-oriented towards the explanation of concepts. The Union may tie up with different units within the University in co-sponsoring such workshops and activities. Members may become more receptive to them when they see that it is not just the union but actually an alliance of offices that is inviting them to attend these activities.

The Need for Counseling and Legal Aid

The FGD participants all shared and benefited from the discussion that later metamorphosed into a peer counseling session. The need to be listened to non-judgmentally, to be validated, and to be given advice and options without any impositions can be important for anybody, and more so for women who live day to day the prejudices brought on by stringent social, moral, religious and cultural standards and practices. The creation of a safe space for both women and men, an emotionally-safe environment where issues, situations and experiences can be discussed with someone or with a group of people without fear of criticism or condemnation will be, in our estimation, a huge part of the Gender Committee’s role. Objectives and parameters for paracounseling, legal aid, documentation, consultation with gender specialists and feminists from different disciplines, and confidentiality can be formulated, discussed, and investigated as a possibility, as clearly there is a need for such a function. The Gender Committee may themselves be involved in the paracounseling or may train and manage a group of competent volunteers who possess the potential skills and proper ethics necessary for handling such delicate matters.

FGD and SURVEY: Conclusion and Recommendations

The study was undertaken based on the valid assumption that, despite the large membership of the Union, only a disturbingly small percentage is actively involved in it. The limited (or even non-) participation of women is within this already small percentage is a bigger concern. Through the survey and FGD, the issues regarding the limited participation were brought to light. More importantly, the findings verified that in terms of women’s participation (or the lack thereof), gender issues become the major factor. Women are the primary care takers of their family.

Facilitating Factors to Active Participation

Awareness of national, community, and University-wide issues: The Union is anchored on a militant, progressive, and nationalistic stance. This is what makes it different from other university-based unions or employees association. University-wide issues or issues that affect UP employees are traced to, linked to, and viewed in the context of the prevailing situation at the national and community levels.

Those who are actively involved in the Union cited that their involvement makes them more aware of current and pressing issues at the national, community, and University-wide levels. This contributes to their learning and self-development. At the same time, they are able to deepen their understanding of unionism by being involved in the activities and calls-for-action for reforms in government and UP administration.

Become active participants in the change and development process: Being active in the Union makes them feel that they are able to give back and contribute to the community and country. As change agents, they not only focus on the issues of the employees, but they are also greatly involved in the pursuit for change, and national development.

Fight for employees’ rights: Those who are active in the union believe that they must continue to struggle for employees’ rights even when these do not directly benefit them. They are saddened by the way others belittle their efforts of going out and making their voice heard in the MOBs as well as the way others passively accept the things as they are. The same people also receive benefits when these are implemented through the successful efforts of those who are active. They want to encourage others to also become active and to believe in how they can contribute to the resonating voice of those who continue the struggle for everyone’s rights.

Hindering Factors to Active Participation

The Union is not focused on gender issues: One of the important points that surfaced by the survey and the FGD is that organizing the Gender Committee did not strike the respondents as a priority of the Union. This may be attributed to their perception that the Union lacks focus on gender-specific issues, which in turn could translate into the low level of awareness of members on the existence of the Gender Committee.

Majority of female and male respondents (64% and 47% respectively) are not aware of the existence of the Gender Committee. However, it is interesting to note that there is a greater disparity in the number of women who are aware of the Gender Committee (34%) and those who are not (64%). With the men, the disparity is smaller (42% and 47%, respectively). This may be attributed to the fact that men, more than women, comprise the active participants of the Union and are thus more familiar with the workings of organization, including its different committees.

It is therefore imperative that this issue be addressed. The Union must be able to communicate to its constituents its perception of the need for the prioritization of the Gender Committee. This will ensure that appropriate focus on women’s issues and needs be established and achieved through the incorporation of gender- or women-specific issues in the planning.

Both women and men felt that the most important gender issues that should be addressed by the Gender Committee are: Gender equality; sexual harassment; and lack of affordable or free daycare facilities. For women, the other gender issues that should be addressed by the Gender Committee are (according to level of importance): Non-flexible work schedule; limited choices of the kind of jobs available for women; and sexual division of labor. On the other hand, the men ranked issues in the following order: Limited choices of the kind of jobs available for women; sexual division of labor; and non-flexible work schedule. These findings are significant and can be the start-off points for developing gender-specific programs and activities of the Committee.

Negative attitude towards Union activities: This negative attitude stems from two aspects: One is the employees’ hesitation or lack of interest to participate in Union activities; the other is a lack of support for Union activities from their supervisors or unit heads.

Employees’ hesitation or lack of interest to participate in Union activities. With a membership reaching more than 800, a large percentage of which is inactive, the Union can expect that not all members will be interested in participating in its activities. Some respondents have indicated that they do not like to take part in rallies and mass actions/ mobilization. Others feel that the Union should be more focused on University- and employee-related issues, and refrain from resorting to what they perceived to be “an aggressive manner” in tackling issues. These are reactions that are rooted in members’ nonparticipation and inactivity in the Union. These reactions may be informed if members willingly involved themselves more in activities, which will in turn cause them to become more enlightened on the thrusts and objectives of the Union.

Lack of support for Union activities from their supervisors or unit heads. During the FGD, one issue that came up is the lack of support for Union activities from some supervisors or unit heads. In one unit, for example, the head is very strict with employees participating in union activities, and feels that he/she “owns” their time and therefore has the right to dictate upon them. In another office, there have been instances when the supervisor would even give them more work whenever the union has a scheduled activity. As brought up during the discussion, there is a need to address this matter since this may also be a factor that affects the members’ participation in Union activities.

In such cases, the FGD participants pointed out, it is important for the employee to assert himself/herself. Given that people have different consciousness levels in terms of their rights, some are expectedly more assertive than others. It is therefore important for all members to have a high level of consciousness, or work on increasing it. The Gender Committee can assume a very important role toward this end.

For example, employees can be made aware of how they can point out to their superiors that, as stated in the Collective Negotiation Agreement (CNA), all employee union members are entitled to invoke “official time” during Union General Assembly.

Work-related reasons: The most common reason given by the respondents about why they are not active in the Union is that of conflicting work schedules and Union activities. As such they are compelled to prioritize work over Union activities, especially when they belong to units that are considered service points. Another reason given for inactivity is that employees are not allowed to leave the office to attend Union activities during work hours all at the same time. And thirdly, it is also common for employees to be overloaded with work or to “multi-task” because of the lack of human resource within the office.

Multiple burden of women: The gender issue that was apparent in the responses is the multiple burden of women in balancing home, work, and other activities (i.e. Union activities and community). None of the male respondents cited family- or home-related issues as the reason for inactivity. Instead, they cited after-office activities aside from work-related issues and conflict with time.

In contrast, most women, especially those who are married and/or have children, are saddled with the responsibility of taking care of their family – a major contributory factor to why women are not actively participating in Union activities. The following sentiment of women informally interviewed during the collection of accomplished survey was also raised during the FGD: Most women do not have household help, and even when they do, they feel that, as wives and mothers, they are still the ones primarily responsible for the well-being of their family. Of course, there are also a few cases where the husband is supportive of his wife’s participation in Union activities, but sadly this is not the norm.

Gender sensitization within the Union is important so that both women and men become aware of gender issues that they may not recognize as important at this point.

Validation of the Need to Strengthen the Gender Committee

The survey and FGD results validated the need to strengthen the Gender Committee. Currently, there is a lot of groundwork to be done in terms of organizing the committee and making it functional and responsive to the gender needs of the organization and its members.

The important findings that are critical in initiating the effort to consolidate the Gender Committee are the following:

  • The Union should provide more focus on gender issues, and there should be corresponding gender-based planning and budget allocation to implement gender programs and activities;
  • Because of the Union’s large membership size, gender programs and activities can be unit- or office-driven and attuned to the specific gender needs of each of the units/offices. However, these programs and activities should be anchored to an overall gender framework such as a Gender and Development (GAD) Plan;
  • Organize and get the commitment of a core group of people who will compose the Gender Committee;
  • Gender awareness among Union officers and members is important to raise their level of consciousness on gender-based issues. Specific activities that can be carried out include: information and education campaign (IEC), gender awareness seminars, and gender sensitivity training;
  • Adequate services and safe spaces for women should be provided, such as provision of day care facilities and counseling services. If these cannot be provided by the Union in the immediate future, then a referral system to nearby day care centers and counseling services (either within UP or provided by NGOs) should be put in place;
  • Coordination with relevant UP offices such as the Gender Office and Office of Anti-Sexual Harassment is important to ensure that gender programs and activities are aligned, to consolidate similar efforts, and conduct jointly organized programs and activities; and
  • Union members should be made aware of the existence and relevance of the Gender Committee. Aside from IEC activities, the Women’s Month should be a highlight of the Committee’s activities especially for women.

Recommendations

We provide the following recommendations for addressing the above findings and concerns/issues:

  • Organize the Gender Committee. The initiative toward this end has already been started. The participants of the FGD have signified their commitment to be the core group that will comprise the Committee. As a start-up activity, the group participated in the March 6, 2008 build-up activities. A gender awareness orientation for the Committee members, Union Officers, and other prospective members of the Committee has already been tentatively scheduled on March 26, 2008. This gender orientation will be coordinated with the OASH for use of its facilities, venue, and provision of resource speaker.
  • Conduct gender planning. Initially, the Gender Committee, together with identified gender focal person per office/unit, can hold a one-day gender planning workshop. The results of the survey and FGD, and the identified and perceived gender needs of the organization, can serve as start-off points for the planning workshop. The outputs of this workshop will also serve as an input to the overall Gender and Development (GAD) Plan of the Union.
  • Formulate an overall Gender and Development (GAD) Plan. As a start, a GAD Plan is essential in order to have a framework for gender efforts. This GAD Plan should be based on the results of the gender planning. The GAD Plan will also be the take-off point for coming up with appropriate gender programs and activities.
  • Allocate budget for the implementation of the GAD Plan. Appropriate budget should be allocated in order to carry out gender programs and activities. The GAD budget should be incorporated in the Union’s annual budget plan.
  • Strengthen coordination and partnership with relevant offices within UP. To unify gender efforts within the University, the Union through the Gender Committee, should coordinate with relevant offices such as the Gender Office; Office of Anti-Sexual Harassment; Center for Women’s Studies; and the CSWCD-Department of Women and Development Studies. Joint activities can also be co-organized by the Union with these offices/units.
  • Continuity of WD fieldwork placement. The work we have done is only the beginning. To continue with what has been started in terms of strengthening gender efforts of the Union and consolidating the Gender Committee, we suggest some follow-on activities, such as:
  • Conduct of a gender analysis: This is important in order to have a more in-depth study of gender issues.
  • Institutionalize gender mainstreaming: The promotion of gender equality is explicit in the main policy document of the Union, the Collective Negotiation Agreement (CNA). This policy should be reflected in the Union’s programs and plans. The Union should push for an evaluation of its policies, programs, and plans, to ensure that gender concerns are integrated in these areas. Examples of gender mainstreaming activities include: gender disaggregation in membership files and other files; provision of gender-sensitive services to members; etc.
  • Conduct a similar survey for All UP Academic Employees Union: This was part of the initial work plan for our fieldwork placement. However, this was not pursued due to the limited time. This can be undertaken by the succeeding WD fieldwork students.

“Women and the All UP Unions: Mainstreaming the Women’s Agenda – An Integrated Field Work Paper” written Jelina Tetangco and Cindy Cruz-Cabrera | March 2008

Next: Production of Gender Disaggregated Data: All UP Workers Union

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Author: cindycatz: occasional pianist and coffee shop philosopher

fond of the sun, sky, sea, sand and starfish; passionate about literacy, education, media, feminisms, development, popular culture, counterculture, migration phenomenon, anthropology and the fourth world; fascinated with crochet, sushi-making, fiction, creative non-fiction, storytelling, some films and series | books and comics | anime and manga | music and videos | bands and groupies, Latin and Italian, mom-and-pop consumerism, tavern bards and cafe philosophers, trinkets and bric-a-bracs, and steampunk and lolita couture; and absolutely enamored with nail polish and bag charms, frappucinos and margaritas, conversations and moments, her 41 year-old piano, and - of course - CATS. credentials? visit about.me/cindycruzcabrera & ph.linkedin.com/in/cindycruzcabrera/

2 thoughts on “Investigation of the UP Union Women-Members’ Participation

  1. Pingback: Women and the All UP Unions: Mainstreaming the Women’s Agenda – An Integrated Field Work Paper – Introduction | Papers, Pursuits and Purrsuasions

  2. Pingback: Women and the All UP Unions: Mainstreaming the Women’s Agenda – An Integrated Field Work Paper – Table of Contents | Papers, Pursuits and Purrsuasions

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